I've seen a charge on my debit card which couldn't have been mine as I wasn't even near anywhere that place that day. A call to a bank, and everything was alright; they will mail me an affdavit denying that I made those charges.
So I presume debit card may have some protection at least.
But the safest thing to do in a restaurant would be when you get the recipt, get up and pay at the counter. That way you get to keep your sight on the card for the transaction.